The Impact Of Supplements On Exercise Recovery

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The Impact Of Supplements On Exercise Recovery

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The 4R nutritional strategies framework for exercise recovery: an overview with a focus on the next generation of carbohydrates

Author: Diego A. BonillaDiego A. Bonilla SciProfiles Scilit Google Scholar 1, 2, 3, 4 , Alexandra Pérez-IdárragaAlexandra Pérez-Idárraga SciProfiles Scilit Google Scholar 1, 5, 6, * Oz, Adrián Odriozola -Martínez SciProfiles Scilit Google Scholar 4, 7, 8 and Richard B. KreiderRichard B. Kreider SciProfiles Scilit Google Scholar 9

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Sports Genomics Research Group, Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain

Application Received: December 5, 2020 / Modified: December 20, 2020 / Accepted: December 22, 2020 / Published: December 25, 2020

Post-exercise recovery is a broad concept referring to the recovery of training capabilities. After training or competition, fatigue accumulates and sports performance decreases. In the hours and days after training, the body recovers and performance is expected to return to normal or improve. ScienceDirect, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases were reviewed to identify studies and position statements regarding the relationship between nutrition and sports recovery. The 4R approach to optimal post-exercise recovery is identified as an evidence-based framework: (i) Hydration – a fundamental process that depends on the athlete, the environment and the sporting event; (ii) Energy replenishment – Carbohydrate consumption is important not only to replenish glycogen stores, but also to meet the energy needs of the immune system and tissue regeneration. Several bioengineered carbohydrates have been considered, but more research is needed; (iii) Repair – consumption of high quality protein and creatine monohydrate after exercise will benefit tissue growth and repair; and (iv) relaxation – nutrition before bed has a restorative effect that facilitates regeneration of the musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune and nervous systems. Nutritional counseling based on the 4R principle is important for judiciously managing hydration, nutrition and development strategies for a speedy recovery.

Exercise-induced changes occur as a result of acute or chronic changes at the metabolic, cellular, tissue and systemic levels [1, 2, 3, 4]. During physical exercise, several molecular changes occur in the processes of ATP synthesis and degradation in muscle cells [5], to the extent that the relationship between energy production and consumption (ATP/ADP ratio in cells muscle) is a key point in the event. muscle damage and fatigue that is characterized by a sharp decrease in strength and power in response to contractile activity [6]. Here, a significant increase in the intramuscular concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and hydrogen ions (H

Pdf) Fast Food Results In Similar Post Exercise Glycogen Recovery And Exercise Performance Compared To Sport Supplements: 1292 Board #85 May 28, 9

With the allostasis model, which insists on the need for effective management of the biological system to anticipate needs and prepare to meet them before they occur [8], pre- post-exercise nutrition techniques help replenish energy stores (eg, muscle and liver glycogen), replenish fluids and electrolytes, synthesize new proteins to combat both the catabolic state and damage induced by exercise, and to improve the response of the immune system [9, 10, 11]. All these aspects have a significant impact on the allostatic response and the allostatic load, which must be maintained for an appropriate period of time. According to Edes and Crews (2017): “Allostatic load comes from the altered physiology of multiple systems secondary to stresses and related responses and therefore can be assessed using multiple components -a system of biomarkers representing, for example, the neuroendocrine, metabolic, cardiovascular and immune system. systems. systems” [12]. For example, during post-exercise molecular mechanisms that regulate adaptation to exercise training, protein content and enzyme activity change over time due to the activation or inhibition of certain signaling pathways that regulation of gene expression (transcriptional and translational processes) [13]. Ultimately, these mechanisms lead to a modified phenotype consistent with the athlete’s goals in terms of strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, increase power, flexibility, speed, exercise economy (VO).

In this regard, muscle tissue (like other tissues) shows remarkable plasticity in response to repeated stimuli such as exercise training, leading to phenotypic changes in the form of increased resistance to contraction and resistance to fatigue. [14]. Therefore, to structure or explain the recovery process, it is necessary to prepare the body physically and mentally to respond to the demands of training and capacity, trying not to interfere with the necessary adaptive processes for incremental development [17]. Therefore, recovery strategies will largely depend on the proximity of the next session, the level of physiological stress, and the importance of the next event. This determines how to hydrate, refuel and consume the nutrients needed to improve tissue repair. The purpose of this review article is to summarize nutritional strategies to optimize post-exercise recovery, with particular emphasis on new forms of carbohydrates.

A literature review was conducted using several databases (ScienceDirect, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Google Scholar) to identify studies and case reports examining the relationship between nutritional strategies, nutritional supplements, and exercise recovery. . The search string for all databases was “nutrition AND (exercise recovery OR sports recovery)”, although other articles were manually searched. We prioritized articles written in English and published since 2010, although selected publications prior to this date were included as primary evidence in the field. On the other hand, we excluded articles that did not analyze the effect on post-exercise recovery, abstracts or articles where the full text version was not available, and studies that focus on the effects of performance and image enhancing drugs. To clarify the description and role of next-generation carbohydrates, the identification of additional studies was enriched by manual search of free language terms related to the effect of bioengineered carbohydrate administration on recovery and athletic performance.

Implementing the search algorithm using Boolean operators yielded 1,816 references; however, we screened articles based on article type, text availability, and relevance to the topic to consider the following sections. To better understand nutritional strategies that affect exercise recovery, a reminder titled 4Rs (Hydrate, Refuel, Repair and Rest) was introduced. This approach divides nutritional intervention into four interrelated conditions that follow exercise to optimize exercise adaptation and recovery (Figure 2).

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One of the first goals of rehabilitation is to replenish fluid and electrolyte deficits. Most physically active people sweat between 0.3 and 2.4 L·h

, which depends on exercise intensity, duration and environmental conditions such as altitude, temperature and humidity [18, 19]. In addition, individual characteristics (i.e. body weight, genetic predisposition, thermal stress status, physical fitness and metabolic efficiency) can influence the level of sweat perception during a specific activity [20]. For example, the maximum sweat rate was recorded at 3.7 L·h

For a world-class ultramarathon runner [21]. Therefore, measuring body weight before and after exercise is a recommended practice to assess fluid status.

Hydration is important especially in team sports, endurance and extreme endurance, where in many cases it is impossible to compensate for the loss of fluids and electrolytes that occur during exercise, especially in a hot and humid environment. In general, for rapid rehydration, it is recommended to lose 150% of the weight after exercise within a short recovery period (less than 4 hours) [22, 23], with a sodium concentration of 20 to 30 mEq·L

Pdf] Ioc Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements And The High Performance Athlete.

) and make sure your body weight is back before your next training session. In addition, it has even been shown that you consume a drink that contains sodium in the amount of 40 to 60 mEq · L

They can improve fluid retention and hydration when there is little time between sessions or moderate dehydration is present [24].

Hydration can last from four to 24 hours [9]. If time and recovery options allow, eating sodium-rich foods such as crackers, peanuts, bread, milk, cheese, ham, kabanos and soup may be sufficient to regain euhydration. However, if the recovery time is less than 12 hours, more aggressive hydration strategies and the use of hydrating drinks (eg glycerin) are advisable.